Dating outside marriage
For example, fear of kidnap is cited as a reason for the lower participation of girls in the education system.
The mechanism of marriage by abduction varies by location.
Bride kidnapping is not specifically outlawed in Rwanda, though violent abductions are punishable as rape.
According to a criminal justice official, bride kidnappers are virtually never tried in court: "When we hear about abduction, we hunt down the kidnappers and arrest them and sometimes the husband, too.
The term is sometimes used to include not only abductions, but also elopements, in which a couple runs away together and seeks the consent of their parents later; these may be referred to as non-consensual and consensual abductions respectively.
However, even when the practice is against the law, judicial enforcement remains lax in some areas, such as Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Chechnya.
In most nations, bride kidnapping is considered a sex crime rather than a valid form of marriage.
Some types of it may also be seen as falling along the continuum between forced marriage and arranged marriage.
Marriage by abduction used to be, and to some extent still is, a customary practice for the Kisii ethnic group.
Though most common in the late 19th century through the 1960s, such marriage abductions still occur occasionally.
The Turkana tribe in Kenya also practised marriage by abduction.
In some modern cases, the couple collude together to elope under the guise of a bride kidnapping, presenting their parents with a fait accompli.
In most cases, however, the men who resort to capturing a wife are often of lower social status, because of poverty, disease, poor character or criminality.